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Monkeys serve as first animal model of smallpox

first_img The authors say that the ideal animal model of smallpox would more closely resemble ordinary smallpox in humans, with a longer clinical course and without hemorrhagic manifestations, but would still cause high mortality. They tried to achieve this by giving monkeys lower doses of virus, which resulted in both reduced hemorrhage and lower mortality. “The demonstration that variola virus strains can produce lethal disease in monkeys is a significant advance toward the development of antiviral drugs and improved vaccines, as well as an improved understanding of variola pathogenesis,” says the report by Peter B. Jahrling of the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) and colleagues from USAMRIID, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Stanford University. Under the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) “animal efficacy rule,” treatments and vaccines can be approved on the basis of animal data alone if human trials are impractical or unethical, as in the case of smallpox. The FDA rule requires that the actual pathogen be used and that “the disease process be faithful to the human disease,” the report notes. Nineteen of 21 monkeys that received the highest doses of virus died, most of them within 6 days after exposure. Of 12 monkeys that received a lower dose, only one died. Both strains of virus were lethal to most of the monkeys at the highest doses, and the infections were mostly fatal regardless of whether exposure was by injection and aerosol or by injection alone. Oct 14, 2004 (CIDRAP News) – Federal researchers report they have succeeded in infecting monkeys with fatal smallpox, creating the first animal model of the disease for use in testing vaccines and treatments for humans. The team previously reported exposing two groups of monkeys to a variola virus aerosol, which caused infection but not serious illness. In the present experiment, the researchers used two other variola strains (Harper and India 7124). Groups of monkeys received either an intravenous injection of virus accompanied by aerosol exposure or an IV injection alone. Analysis of tissue from the infected monkeys has already yielded some information about how smallpox changes gene activity in cells attacked by the virus, yielding clues about how it overcomes host defenses, according to a separate report in PNAS. “The i.v. inoculation of high doses of variola virus produced an overwhelming, hemorrhagic disease course, ending in acute deaths, usually within 6 days of inoculation,” the report states. Postmortem examination showed high levels of virus and widespread hemorrhages in the monkeys’ organs. Researchers exposed cynomolgus macaques to high doses of variola (smallpox) virus, causing most of them to die of the hemorrhagic form of smallpox within a few days, according to an online report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). Scientists previously thought that humans were the only species susceptible to smallpox.center_img Jahrling PB, Hensley LE, Martinez MJ, et al. Exploring the potential of variola virus infection of cynomolgus macaques as a model for human smallpox. Proc Nat Acad Sci 2004 Oct 11 (published online before print) (Full text) The use of IV inoculation of the virus eliminated the incubation and prodromal stages of natural smallpox, causing “instantaneous viremia” and resulting in a much shorter clinical course than was typical when smallpox still existed in humans, the authors note. “Yet, the sequence of events in the monkeys is similar to human hemorrhagic smallpox, a form that was almost always fatal.” In humans, only about 2% to 3% of smallpox cases were hemorrhagic. Rubins KH, Hensley LE, Jahrling PB, et al. The host response to smallpox: analysis of the gene expression program in peripheral blood cells in a nonhman primate model. Proc Nat Acad Sci 2004 Oct 11 (published online before print) (Full text) David Relman, MD, of Stanford University, and colleagues analyzed how the smallpox infection altered gene expression in the monkeys’ blood cells, according to a news release from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), which supported the research. The researchers used DNA microarrays, a fairly new tool, to examine changes in levels of gene expression and expression of some proteins in the blood of infected monkeys. The success of Jahrling and his team in inducing lethal smallpox in monkeys has been no secret, having been described in Richard Preston’s 2002 book The Demon in the Freezer. But the current PNAS report is apparently the first full description of the research in a journal. “This new research fills in some of the gaps in our understanding of smallpox,” NIAID Director Dr. Anthony Fauci, MD, said in the news release. “Now we are better positioned to speed the development of protective measures.” The article says that variola and monkeypox viruses cause very similar diseases in monkeys. Accordingly, the authors hope to test most smallpox countermeasures in the monkeypox model. “The variola primate model would be reserved for testing only those countermeasures that have passed all other FDA requirements for drug or vaccine licensure,” they state.last_img read more

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Logan Duffy scores first Indee IMCA Late Model win

first_imgBen Seemann led early before Johnson took the point. Johnson led until a restart late in the race and that is when Duffy used the low line of the multi-grooved track to shoot into the lead. Duffy appeared to have the feature in hand but two white flag cautions set up two green, white, check­ered restarts. The 16 year old Duffy was not to be denied in scoring his hard fought win over Jeff Aikey and Sean Johnson.   INDEPENDENCE, Iowa (June 13) – Saturday was a night for the record books at the Independ­ence Motor Speedway, with two bounties claimed and another set, plus hometowner Logan Duffy scored his first local win in the very tough IMCA Sunoco Late Model division.  Duffy started racing at his local track by jumping right into the Late Model division at the age of 14 with veterans like Jeff Aikey, Curt Martin, Greg Kastli, Sean Johnson and many more. Under the watchful eye of his grandfather and IMS Hall of Famer Gary Crawford, Duffy scored the 25-lap feature win on Saturday night. By Jerry Mackey Tony Olson accepted the promoter’s challenge by starting 21st on the Karl Kustoms Northern SportMod grid, Olson was offered two times the finishing position money by starting the main event shot gun on the field. He worked to the front but was not able to catch strong running cousin Kyle Olson, who started on the outside front row and led the 20-lap main flag to flag. Kip Siems ran second ahead of Tony Olson.  In the IMCA Sunoco Stock Car feature, Scooter Dulin led early before Cole Mather was able to take control and go on to record his second consecutive win. The consecutive wins have earned Mather a bounty by promoter Mick Trier. Next week with 20 Stock Cars taking the green for the main event an extra $100 will be up for grabs to any driver who can stop Mather’s win streak. Mather scored the win Saturday night over Tom Schmitt and Bob Ahrendsen.  center_img The IMCA Modified 20 lap feature win on Saturday night went to Brennen Chipp. Chipp started seventh, steadily worked to the front and took the lead from Tony Snyder. Chipp went on to hold back the constant challenges of Ronn Lauritizen in getting to the checkers.  A total of 124 drivers signed in do battle.  The same offer was made to Kaden Reynolds in the IMCA Sunoco Hobby Stocks following his two consecutive wins at IMS. Reynolds got all the way to the front and was looking at a big pay­day but Brett Vanous had other plans. Vanous and Reynolds raced the last two laps with some paint being traded. Vanous held off a last-lap charge by Reynolds in taking the win.last_img read more

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Treanor, Murray miss out on Tewaaraton Award

first_imgBoth Alyssa Murray and Kayla Treanor fell short of winning the Tewaaraton Award, which is given to the country’s top lacrosse player, on Thursday night. It was instead presented to Maryland’s Taylor Cummings at a ceremony in Washington D.C.No Syracuse women’s lacrosse player has won the Tewaaraton Award, which was first awarded in 2001. Mike Leveille (2008) and Mike Powell (2002 and 2004) remain the only Syracuse athletes who have hauled in the country’s most prestigious individual accolade.Syracuse fell to Maryland in the national championship game on Sunday, finishing one win shy of its first title in school history.Treanor led the nation with 117 points as a sophomore this year after scoring a Syracuse program-record 79 goals. Murray finished second in the country with 110 points and was also a finalist for the honor last year.Cummings finished with 63 goals to finish ninth in the country. Her Terrapins finished with an 23-1 record.AdvertisementThis is placeholder textMaryland defender Megan Douty and Florida midfielder Shannon Gilroy were also finalists for the award. Comments Published on May 29, 2014 at 9:45 pm Contact Sam: [email protected] | @SamBlum3 Related Stories THREE AND OUT: Syracuse falls in national championship game, loses to Maryland for 3rd time this seasonOveraggressive Syracuse defense yields 15 goals in NCAA championship game loss to MarylandSyracuse fails to collect crucial draw controls, Cummings propels Maryland to championship wincenter_img Facebook Twitter Google+last_img read more

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He’s not in our immediate plans – Bruce on Atsu’s absence

first_imgNewcastle United winger, Christian Atsu, has failed to make the matchday squad since the Premier League restart.Illness, was the initial reason given for the absence of the Ghana international in the Magpies last two games.However, Newcastle United manager, Steve Bruce, has disclosed that the 28 year old has been left out because of the level of competition in the squad.“Atsu wasn’t too well when we came back after the lockdown. “You can only pick 20 players. “He’s still got a part to play but, at the moment, he’s not quite making the squad,” Bruce said in his pre-match press conference  against Bournemouth. Atsu has struggled this season, and has been limited to only eight league starts under Steve Bruce.The former Chelsea man has been identified as one of the players likely to leave the Premier League side in the summer transfer window.last_img read more

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